Recursion / Divide and Conquer - The Number of Inversions

Time Limit : 1 sec, Memory Limit : 131072 KB
Japanese version is here

The Number of Inversions


For a given sequence $A = \{a_0, a_1, ... a_{n-1}\}$, the number of pairs $(i, j)$ where $a_i > a_j$ and $i < j$, is called the number of inversions. The number of inversions is equal to the number of swaps of Bubble Sort defined in the following program:

bubbleSort(A)
  cnt = 0 // the number of inversions
  for i = 0 to A.length-1
    for j = A.length-1 downto i+1
      if A[j] < A[j-1]
	swap(A[j], A[j-1])
	cnt++

  return cnt

For the given sequence $A$, print the number of inversions of $A$. Note that you should not use the above program, which brings Time Limit Exceeded.

Input

In the first line, an integer $n$, the number of elements in $A$, is given. In the second line, the elements $a_i$ ($i = 0, 1, .. n-1$) are given separated by space characters.

output

Print the number of inversions in a line.

Constraints

  • $ 1 \leq n \leq 200,000$
  • $ 0 \leq a_i \leq 10^9$
  • $a_i$ are all different

Sample Input 1

5
3 5 2 1 4

Sample Output 1

6

Sample Input 2

3
3 1 2

Sample Output 2

2