Connected Components - Bridges

Time Limit : 1 sec, Memory Limit : 65536 KB
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Bridges

Find bridges of an undirected graph G(V, E).

A bridge (also known as a cut-edge) is an edge whose deletion increase the number of connected components.

Input

|V| |E|
s0 t0
s1 t1
:
s|E|-1 t|E|-1

, where |V| is the number of nodes and |E| is the number of edges in the graph. The graph nodes are named with the numbers 0, 1,..., |V|-1 respectively.

si and ti represent source and target nodes of i-th edge (undirected).

Output

A list of bridges of the graph ordered by name. For each bridge, names of its end-ponints, source and target (source < target), should be printed separated by a space. The sources should be printed ascending order, then the target should also be printed ascending order for the same source.

Constraints

  • 1 ≤ |V| ≤ 100,000
  • 0 ≤ |E| ≤ 100,000
  • The graph is connected
  • There are no parallel edges
  • There are no self-loops

Sample Input 1

4 4
0 1
0 2
1 2
2 3

Sample Output 1

2 3

Sample Input 2

5 4
0 1
1 2
2 3
3 4

Sample Output 2

0 1
1 2
2 3
3 4